Ferns are among the first plants growing on the cinder and ash fields after the volcano erupts. As we walked around Volcano National Park trails, we enjoyed seeing the many shapes and forms of ferns, especially the fascinating spirals at the tips of growing leaves and stems. Hawaiian ferns include the Kupukupu, the Palapalai, and the Hapu'u pulu.
|Kupukupu fern: sprouting stem and leaf|
|Palapalai fern -- another Ohi'a lehua rises above it.|
In the older forests, these trees are very tall and are buzzing with birds
eating nectar from the flowers.
|Hapu'u pulu has a woody looking growth tip.|
|Ferns surrounding an old lava tube|
at the bottom of a steep indentation in the ground.